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Otitis externa (swimmer's ear)
What is otitis externa?
Otitis externa, also called swimmer's ear, is an inflammation of the external ear canal. Swimmer's ear is caused by fungi or bacteria. Water that remains trapped in the ear canal (when swimming, for example) may provide a source for the growth of bacteria and fungi.
What causes swimmer's ear?
Otitis externa can occur when water is trapped in the ear canal, for example, while swimming. Many different factors can increase your child's chance of developing swimmer's ear. As the name implies, one of the factors is excessive wetness as with swimming, although it can occur without swimming. Other possible causes of this infection include the following:
- Being in warm, humid places
- Harsh cleaning of the ear canal
- Trauma to the ear canal
- Dry ear canal skin
- Foreign body in the ear canal
- Lack of cerumen (ear wax)
- Eczema and other forms of dermatitis
What are the symptoms of swimmer's ear?
The following are the most common symptoms of swimmer's ear. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- Redness of the outer ear
- Itching in the ear
- Pain, especially when touching or wiggling the ear
- Drainage from the ear
- Swollen glands in the neck
- Swollen ear canal
- Hearing loss
The symptoms of swimmer's ear may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.
How is swimmer's ear diagnosed?
Swimmer's ear may be diagnosed with a complete medical history and physical examination by your child's physician. Your child's physician may use an otoscope, a lighted instrument that helps to examine the ear and to aid in the diagnosis of ear disorders. This will help your child's physician know if there is also an infection in the middle ear, called otitis media. Although this infection usually does not occur with swimmer's ear, some children may have both types of infections.
Your child's physician may also take a culture of the drainage from the ear to help determine proper treatment.
Treatment of swimmer's ear:
Swimmer's ear, when properly treated by a physician, usually clears up within seven to 10 days. Specific treatment for swimmer's ear will be determined by your child's physician based on:
- Your child's age, overall health and medical history
- Extent of the condition
- Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- Expectations for the course of the condition
- Your opinion or preference
Treatment may include:
- Antibiotic ear drops or oral antibiotics
- Pain medication
- Keeping the ear dry, as directed by your child's physician
- A wick (a piece of sponge may be placed in your child's ear if there is a lot of swelling. This wick helps the antibiotic drops work more effectively in the ear canal.)
Preventing swimmer's ear:
The following are some hints to help prevent swimmer's ear:
- Place two to three drops of a mixture of vinegar and isopropyl alcohol into your child's ear after the ears come in contact with water.
- Use ear plugs for swimming or bathing.
- Do not aggressively clean your child's ear canal.